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Anatomy & Physiology - Course Syllabus

BASICS OF ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

CHEMISTRY OF LIFE: Building Blocks: Carbon, Calcium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sulphur, Sodium, Magnesium, Chlorine, Iron, Iodine

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids

PROPERTIES OF WATER, SALT & ELECTROLYTES

INTRODUCTION TO ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY: Fibonacci sequence, The Golden Section, Anatomical Positions, Relative positions

BODY CAVITIES

COMMON TERMS IN ANATOMY

ACID, BASE & pH: pH Imbalance & Testing

METABOLISM

BODY TEMPERATURE

BIOLOGICAL ORGANISATION OF THE HUMAN BODY: The Atom, Cellular Level, Organelles, Tissue, Organs, Body or Organ System, Organism

THE CELL: The Outer Membrane, Cytoplasm, Nucleus, Organelles, Mitochondria, Vacuoles, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic reticulum, Lysosomes, Centrosomes and Centrioles, Chromatids, Centromere, Golgi apparatus

TISSUES: Epithelial Tissue, Nervous Tissue, Muscular Tissue, Connective Tissue

MEMBRANES: Synovial, Mucous, Serous

THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

THE SKIN: Functions of the Skin, Protection, Temperature, Excretion and Secretion, Sensitivity, Composition of the Skin, Blood supply, Components

SKIN TYPES

SKIN HEALING

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM: Congenital: Eczema, Psoriasis. Bacterial: Acne Vulgaris, Acne Rosacea, Boils, Abscess, Carbuncle, Folliculitis, Impetigo, Pityriasis. Viral: Verrucas, Herpes. Fungal: Infestation. Pigmentation Disorders: Ageing Spots, Albinism, Chloasma, Ephelides, Lentigo, Moles/Naevae, Stains, Vitiligo. General Disorders: Allergic reaction, Asteatosis, Broken capillaries, Comedones, Corns, Crow's feet, Lumps/Fatty Tissue/Lipomas , Milia, Rashes, Urticaria, UV damage. Cancer: Basal cell carcinoma, Melanoma, Squamous cell carcinoma

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

COMPONENTS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: The Mouth, Salivary Glands, The Oesophagus, The Stomach, Small Intestine, Large Intestine, The Liver, Pancreas

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Anorexia, Appendicitis, Bulimia, Cirrhosis, Coliac disease, Colic, Constipation, Crohn's Disease, Cystic fibrosis, Diarrhoea, Diverticular disease, Flatulence, Gallstones, Gastritis, Haemorrhoids, Heartburn, Hepatitis, Hernia, Hiccoughs, H. pylori, Indigestion, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Jaundice, Stress, Ulcer, Ulcerative Colitis

THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

ORGANS OF RESPIRATION

RESPIRATION

EXTERNAL RESPIRATION

INTERNAL RESPIRATION

GASEOUS INTERCHANGE

CHEMORECEPTORS

THE BRAIN CONNECTION

THE LUNGS: The Bronchus, Alveoli

THE DIAPHRAGM

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: Acute Respiratory Distress, Allergens, Asthma, Bronchitis, Cystic Fibrosis, Diseased Lungs, Emphysema, Hay Fever, Pneumonia, Pleurisy, Rhinitis, Sinusitis, Stress, Tuberculosis

THE CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM

THE HEART: Chambers, Tricuspid Valve, Pulmonary Artery, Pulmonary Veins, Mitral Valve, Aortic Artery, Coronary Arteries, Endocardium, Myocardium, Pericardium

HEART/LUNGS CONNECTION

CIRCULATION OF BLOOD AROUND THE BODY: Arteries, The Descending Aorta, The Ascending Aorta, Veins

MAIN ARTERIES AND VEINS: of Head, Neck and body

BLOOD COMPOSITION: Blood-type compatibility's

FILTRATION

BLOOD PRESSURE: Maintenance of Pressure

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM: Abnormal Bruising, AIDS/HIV, Anaemia, Arrhythmia, Angina, Arteriosclerosis, Atherosclerosis, Blue Baby, Cholesterol - high, Congestive Heart Failure, Haemophilia, Haemorrhoids, Heart Murmurs, Hepatitis ABCD, Hodgkins's Disease, Hypertension, Hypotension, Leukaemia, Phlebitis, Septicaemia, Thrombosis, Varicose Veins

THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

OVERVIEW

DEFENCE

FLUID CONNECTION

BLOOD CONNECTION

LYMPHATIC VESSELS

LYMPH NODES

SPLEEN

TONSILS

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM: Lymphoedema, Lymphomas

THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

RETICULO-ENDOTHELIAL SYSTEM (RES)

NON-SPECIFIC DEFENCES

PHAGOCYTOSIS

T-CELLS

B-CELLS

THE NERVOUS/NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM

NERVE CELLS and GLIAL CELLS

NEURONS

FIGHT/FLIGHT SYNDROME

GLOSSARY

SPINAL AND CRANIAL NERVES

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: The Brain, The Spinal Cord

PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: Sympathetic, Parasympathetic

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: ADHT, Alzheimer's disease, Asperger's disease, Autism, Bell's Palsy, Bipolar Disorder, Cerebral Palsy, Dyslexia, Epilepsy, M.E., Motor Neurone Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Neuritis, Neuralgia, Parkinson's Disease, Sciatica, Schizophrenia, Spina bifida, Stroke

THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

FEMALE: Ovaries, Fallopian Tubes, Uterus, Vagina, Menstrual Cycle, Breasts

MALE: Testes, Scrotum, Penis, Prostate gland, Seminal vesicle

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM: Amenorrhoea, Cancer, Dysmenorrhoea, Ectopic Pregnancy, Endometriosis, Enlarged Prostate, Impotence, Infertility, Labial adhesions, Menstrual problems, Ovarian Tumours, Ovarian cysts, Ovarian torsion, PMS, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Sexually Transmitted Disease, Sterility, Thrush, Toxic shock syndrome, Vaginal bleeding, Vulvovaginitis

THE ENDOCRINE-SYSTEM

COMPONENTS: Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Pineal, Hypothalamus, Thymus, Pancreas, Pancreatic Endocrine Hormones, Suprarenal/Adrenal Glands, Ovaries, Testes

THE HORMONE THERMOSTAT

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: Addison's Disease, Adrenal Cancer, Cushing's Syndrome, Diabetes, Goitre, Hyperparathyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, Menstrual problems, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Thyroid Cancer, Thyroid nodes - solitary, Thyroiditis

EXCRETORY/URINARY SYSTEM

COMPONENTS

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE EXCRETORY/URINARY SYSTEM: Bladder Diverticulitis, Blood in the urine, Calculus/Kidney Stones, Cystitis, Dialysis for malfunction of the kidneys, Enuresis/Incontinence, Nephritis/Brights Disease, Prostate - enlarged, Pyelonephritis, Uraemia

THE SKELETAL SYSTEM

ANATOMICAL

PROTECTION

BONES OF THE BODY

PLANES

FRACTURES

JOINTS: Joint Flexibility

CARTILAGE: Hyaline/Articular Cartilage, Fibro-cartilage, Elastic Cartilage

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE SKELETON: Atrophy, Bunion, Bursitis, Cancer, Congenital dislocation of the hip, Dislocation, Dizziness in head, Disc Problems, Fracture, trauma fracture, broken bones, Gout, Hernias/Prolapse, Hormonal changes, Knee pain, Lower back pain, Osteomalacia, Osteomyelitis, Osteoporosis, Osteonecrosis, Osteosclerosis, Paget's Disease, Rheumatism, Rickets/Osteomalacia, Sciatica, Scoliosis, Shoulder pain, Spondylytis, Spondylytis - ankylosing, Stress, Stress Fracture, Synovitis, Tendonitus

THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM

MUSCLES: Involuntary, Cardiac, Smooth muscles, Voluntary, Muscle Movement, Functions of muscles, Main Muscles of the Body

FASCIA

SAMPLE DISORDERS OF THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM: Atony, Atrophy, Cramp, Fibromyalgia, Fibrositis, Multiple Sclerosis, Muscle fatigue, Muscular dystrophy, Muscular rupture, Myasthenia gravis, Myositis, Poliomyelitis, RSI, Rupture, Sciatica, Shin-splints, Spasm, Spasticity, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Strains, Sprains, Stress, Tetanus, Torticollis, Traumatic injury